The Normal Lights <p><strong>The Normal Lights (TNL)</strong><span style="font-weight: 400;"> is a peer-reviewed education and educational innovation and development journal. TNL aims to publish original research papers in the domain of education, which may be, but is not limited to, the following areas: teacher education, theories of education, sociology of education, curriculum, assessment, technology, innovations, Action Research, education in the non-formal context, governance in education. Education theories may cover the following sub-fields: scholarship of teaching, learning, and assessment; educational administration and strategy; learning courses; and science and technology education. The journal emphasizes systematic inquiry and bridging the gap between theory and practice in education and different educational systems. Specifically, the journal intends to: 1) promote understanding of issues on education through the publication of high-quality empirical research articles and theoretical papers/articles; 2) provide an avenue for education researchers and practitioners to disseminate their critical perspectives on the current trends, problems, and challenges in this field, and related fields; and 3) foster the contribution of education to society. The journal encourages submissions across all levels of education throughout the learner's lifespan. It also accepts articles written in the Philippine national language or Filipino.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Please read our Review Criteria and Instructions to Authors for further information.</span></p> <p><strong>ISSN:</strong><span style="font-weight: 400;"> 1656-4413</span></p> <p><strong>EISSN:</strong><span style="font-weight: 400;"> 2350-6733</span></p> <p><strong>Publishing Schedule</strong></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Articles in this journal are published bi-annually (every June and December).</span></p> <p><strong>Access and Publishing Model</strong></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">As part of the ongoing changes in scientific publishing, the journal follows an open-access publishing model that aims to increase the readership, reach, and impact of published research through an open-access system using PKP’s Open Journal System.</span></p> <p> </p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;"><a href="" rel="license"><img src="" alt="Creative Commons License" /></a><br />This work is licensed under a <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License</a>.</span></p> Philippine Normal University en-US The Normal Lights 1656-4413 Transitioning to Post-COVID-19 Education Marie Paz Escano Morales Copyright (c) 2023 The Normal Lights 2023-12-28 2023-12-28 17 2 Humorous Linguistic Memes as Students' Coping Relief Against COVID-19 Anxiety <p>This quasi-experimental study investigated the effects of humorous linguistic memes as a coping strategy against anxiety. The respondents consisted of 41 students who were purposefully selected based on their manifestation of COVID-19 anxiety. These participants received interventions using humorous linguistic memes. The study used a researcher-made instrument on COVID-19 anxiety composed of 30 items on common anxiety about the coronavirus pandemic. The study utilized the mean for descriptive data analysis, the Mann-Whitney U, and the t-test for inferential data analysis. The researcher also analyzed the respondents' impressions of humorous linguistic memes. Data analysis deduced that funny linguistic memes can potentially reduce a person's anxiety about COVID-19. Frequent exposure to funny memes may contribute to good mental and emotional health. The study suggests that individuals can be exposed to humorous linguistic memes when confronted with a stressful situation.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Publication History</strong></p> <p><strong>Version of Record online: </strong>December 28, 2023</p> <p><strong>Manuscript accepted: </strong>December 22, 2023</p> <p><strong>Manuscript revised: </strong>December 20, 2023</p> <p><strong>Manuscript received: </strong>April 1, 2022</p> Shirley Frigillano Copyright (c) 2023 The Normal Lights 2023-12-28 2023-12-28 17 2 10.56278/tnl.v17i2.2175 Creative Problem-Solving in K to 12 Physics Classroom on STEM Strand <p>Creativity is an important skill to be developed in STEM education and is also needed for economic development. Hence, this study identified and described the instructional practices of Physics teachers that foster creativity in problem-solving in Physics classrooms and their students creativity as influenced by these practices. Using a descriptive case study, classroom observation, semi-structured interviews, and document analysis were initiated from the purposive sample of six cases of Physics teachers. Thematic analysis revealed that the teacher participants foster creativity in problem-solving through constructivist-oriented and student-directed learning activities. The descriptive statistics further revealed that Creative Problem-Solving v6.1TM stages were moderately observed. Assessment of the students' learning outputs uncovered that relevance, effectiveness, problematization, and elegance were the criteria that were highlighted in all cases. In conclusion, the instructional practices and their extent of alignment to CPS v6.1TM can influence the level of creativity in problem-solving. Implications and recommendations were also discussed.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Publication History</strong></p> <p><strong>Version of Record online: </strong>December 28, 2023</p> <p><strong>Manuscript accepted:</strong> December 26, 2023</p> <p><strong>Manuscript revised: </strong>December 21, 2023</p> <p><strong>Manuscript received: </strong>April 27, 2022</p> Albert Andry Panergayo Alfons Jayson Pelgone Copyright (c) 2023 The Normal Lights 2023-12-28 2023-12-28 17 2 10.56278/tnl.v17i2.2174 Flexible Learning and Student-Teacher Relationship Experience of College Students with Visual Impairment <p>In the absence of guidelines and policies on flexible learning delivery to students with special needs from the Commission on Higher Education, this study aimed to describe the lived experiences of flexible learning and the student-teacher relationship of four college students with visual impairments who were mainstreamed in a Philippine higher education institution during the COVID-19 pandemic. The researchers utilized the Husserlian descriptive phenomenological approach and performed a thematic analysis of the data gathered from the interview. As a result, the themes that emerged for flexible learning were (1) environmental and (2) personal factors. On the other hand, the themes that emerged for student-teacher relationships were (1) instructional and (2) motivational interactions. During flexible learning, the students encountered factors beyond their control, making them feel ambivalent and experience adverse health consequences. Despite the challenging circumstances, they coped by upskilling and through social support. The students received accommodation, care, and encouragement from their teachers but asserted that their unique needs must be considered when their teachers design academic tasks and instructional materials. The insights gained from the study imply that education leaders and university administrators may improve the flexible learning experience of students by crafting inclusive quality education policies and capacitating teachers on disability awareness, appropriate teaching strategies, and the use of assistive technology for students with visual impairment.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Publication History</strong></p> <p><strong>Version of Record online: </strong>December 19, 2023</p> <p><strong>Manuscript accepted:</strong> December 11, 2023</p> <p><strong>Manuscript revised: </strong>December 5, 2023</p> <p><strong>Manuscript received: </strong>August 17, 2022</p> Jose Ocampo Corazon Salvador Loy Chee Luen Ahmad Yazid Yahya Sheila Marie Dela Peña Copyright (c) 2023 The Normal Lights 2023-12-19 2023-12-19 17 2 10.56278/tnl.v17i2.2161 Teachers' Perspectives on the Use of Differentiated Instruction for English Language Teaching <p>This study aimed to investigate teachers' perceptions on the use of differentiated instruction for English language teaching. A concurrent triangulation design that involved 160 elementary school teachers from Catanauan I and II Districts, Schools Division of Quezon Province, who were chosen through a complete enumeration, was used. Data were gathered using a validated survey questionnaire and an FGD protocol. Meanwhile, weighted mean, multiple regression analysis, and interpretive phenomenological analysis were used to analyze the data. Findings revealed that the respondents practiced differentiated instruction along the dimensions of content, process, product, and environment to a great extent. Accordingly, they perceived differentiated instruction as a potent approach designed to employ strategies suited to the needs of English language learners (ELLs). Meanwhile, results affirmed that the content, process, product, and environment as dimensions of differentiated instruction practices are significantly related to the public elementary school English language teachers' perception.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Publication History</strong></p> <p><strong>Version of Record online: </strong>December 13, 2023</p> <p><strong>Manuscript accepted:</strong> December 6, 2023</p> <p><strong>Manuscript revised: </strong>November 23, 2023</p> <p><strong>Manuscript received: </strong>August 28, 2022</p> Allan Talain Felixberto Mercado Copyright (c) 2023 The Normal Lights 2023-12-13 2023-12-13 17 2 10.56278/tnl.v17i2.2152 Filipino public-school teachers' empathy: A cross-sectional, descriptive study <p>This cross-sectional study describes Filipino public school teachers' empathy levels and whether these levels are affected by attributes such as age, sex at birth, educational attainment, years of service, and grade level taught. One hundred forty-six public school teachers agreed to participate in a survey conducted during in-service training. Teacher participants reported above average levels of affective, cognitive, and overall empathy. Among the attributes, years of service were found to have significant results from non-parametric analysis. Teachers teaching for 1-5 years had significantly higher affective and overall empathy than those teaching for 16-20 years. No such differences were observed for cognitive empathy. The implications of this decreasing trend in affective empathy, but not cognitive empathy, to length of service were discussed. Recommendations were also provided to address the possible varied effects of cognitive and affective empathy on teachers’ well-being and empathy as a risk or protective factor.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Publication History</strong></p> <p><strong>Version of Record online: </strong>December 28, 2023</p> <p><strong>Manuscript accepted:</strong> December 29, 2023</p> <p><strong>Manuscript revised: </strong>December 27, 2023</p> <p><strong>Manuscript received: </strong>February 9, 2023</p> Jacklyn Santiago Copyright (c) 2023 The Normal Lights 2023-12-28 2023-12-28 17 2 10.56278/tnl.v17i2.2176 E-BAKADA: Interaktibong Kagamitan sa Pagtuturo ng Filipino bilang Ikalawang Wika ng mga Banyagang Estudyante <p>Kaakibat ng globalisasyon ang pag-unlad at manipestasyon nang hindi matawarang kahalagahan ng teknolohiya. Makikitang malaki ang pagbabagong dulot nito sa aspekto ng edukasyon. Bunga ng impluwensya ng mga karatig bansa, hindi pahuhuli ang bansa sa pagkonsumo sa globalisasyon. Sa kasalukuyang estado ng Filipino, malaki ang maitutulong ng integrasyong ICT upang makilala ang wikang Filipino bilang wikang pangglobal. Layunin ng pag-aaral na ito na makabuo ng interaktibong kagamitan at matukoy ang kabisaan nito. Tatawagin itong E-BAKADA, E mula sa elektroniko at BAKADA mula sa ABAKADA. Pananaliksik at Pag-unlad o Research and Development (R&amp;D) ang disenyo ng pag-aaral na ito. Gumamit ng minodipikang tseklist na hango sa Learning Resource Management and Development System para sa balidasyon ng mga gurong eksperto na may karanasan sa pagtuturo ng mga banyagang estudyante at pauna at pangwakas na pagsusulit bilang instrumento sa pagtukoy ng kabisaan ng interaktibong kagamitan para sa mga banyagang estudyante. Maituturing na mabisa at kapaki-pakinabang ang nabuong interaktibong kagamitan sa pagtuturo ng Filipino dahil sa pagtaas ng mean iskor mula sa pauna at pangwakas na pagsusulit na maituturing na makabuluhang pagbabago. Magsisilbi itong gabay sa bawat indibidwal na banyagang estudyante na mahasa ang kanilang kagustuhan at kakayahan sa pagkatuto ng wika at kulturang Filipino. Makatutulong din ito sa mga gurong nagtuturo ng mga banyaga at sa mga estudyante at guro na nagnanais na makatuklas sa panibagong kaalaman gamit ang makabagong teknolohiya.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Publication History</strong></p> <p><strong>Version of Record online: </strong>December 21, 2023</p> <p><strong>Manuscript accepted:</strong> December 20, 2023</p> <p><strong>Manuscript revised: </strong>December 19, 2023</p> <p><strong>Manuscript received: </strong>October 3, 2022</p> Junior Pacol Copyright (c) 2023 The Normal Lights 2023-12-21 2023-12-21 17 2 10.56278/tnl.v17i2.2164 Key Elements of Relevant Pre-service Training from the Perspectives of Science Education Graduates <p>The challenges in schooling brought by a pandemic point to the importance of relevant practices responsive to the dynamics in the workplace and suggest rethinking the pre-service training in higher education. The study used the triangulation in mixed methods research among the 24 purposely selected science education graduates. The qualitative data was gathered through interviews, and the contexts of narratives were analyzed thematically. The survey results on attaining professional standards represent the quantitative data, and the two data sets were merged for analysis and comparison. The merging of the identified themes and quantitative results revealed that thekey elements relevant in pre-service training are procedural and pedagogical content knowledge that facilitates learning, skills for lifelong learning, behaviors for self-regulation, and behaviors supporting effective teaching. These fundamental elements in teaching are recommended as the basis for determining pre-service teachers' readiness toward actual teaching practice.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Publication History</strong></p> <p><strong>Version of Record online: </strong>December 19, 2023</p> <p><strong>Manuscript accepted: </strong>December 15, 2023</p> <p><strong>Manuscript revised: </strong>December 13, 2023</p> <p><strong>Manuscript received: </strong>March 24, 2022</p> Marie Grace Cabansag Gizel Santiago Copyright (c) 2023 The Normal Lights 2023-12-19 2023-12-19 17 2 10.56278/tnl.v17i2.2162 Perceptions of Pre-service Teachers on Code-switching in Bahasa Indonesia to English or Cebuano to English <p>This paper explores the perceptions of Filipino and Indonesian pre-service teachers on code-switching between Cebuano or Bahasa Indonesia, respectively, and English. Attributed to Canagarajah's Global English, among other theories, this quantitative research described the languages used and the perceptions on code-switching. The study compared the results of the Filipino and Indonesian pre-service teachers' perception on codeswitching and identified the preference for language use in both groups. It was found that the respondents are bilingual teachers. Also, both groups agree that teaching in one language only is not beneficial, teaching in both languages is desirable and easier to understand, mixing both languages does not weaken each other, and codeswitching assists in higher grades. Almost all respondents prefer the teaching of English through code-switching. Therefore, an empowered use of the local language and an established teaching of a World English variety unique to the Philippines and Indonesia can help pre-service teachers in their future teaching endeavors.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Publication History</strong></p> <p><strong>Version of Record online: </strong>December 11, 2023</p> <p><strong>Manuscript accepted:</strong> November 3, 2023</p> <p><strong>Manuscript revised: </strong>September 6, 2023</p> <p><strong>Manuscript received: </strong>February 14, 2022</p> Ionell Jay Terogo Copyright (c) 2023 The Normal Lights 2023-12-11 2023-12-11 17 2 10.56278/tnl.v17i2.2148